Guides and practices

COVID-19 rapid guideline: children and young people who are immunocompromised: This guideline, produced by NICE aims to maximise the safety of immunocompromised children and young people (aged 17 to 24) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The guidelines are aimed at health and care practitioners and commissioners to provide guidance on what to start doing and what to stop during the pandemic. The construction of these guidelines followed the interim process and methods and will be reviewed and updated, as the knowledge base and expert experience develops.

Remote consultations guidance: Under the unprecedented circumstances and restrictions imposed by COVID-19, there has been a surge in the demand of remote consultations via video or telephone. The Royal College of Nursing have produced guidelines aimed to support nursing staff, including health visitors, midwives and nursing support workers where they are being asked to see and/or treat patients via a telephone or video or other remote consultation process.

Data and tools

Admissions for children with long-term conditions, emergency admissions and A&E attendance: This is a 2020 update of indicators for hospital admissions for children with asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, gastroenteritis, respiratory tract infections and self harm, emergency admissions for road traffic accidents and A&E attendance for different age groups. These data profiles can be found at a local, regional and a national level.

Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: From the latest year of available data, indicators reporting childhood obesity and children and young people's physical activity are included. The accompanying report also presents the information including key findings and links to relevant documents and sources alongside a data visualization tool for obesity related admissions and time series points from 2013-14. Regional and national comparisons are also provided.

Research

The effect of lactoferrin supplementation on death or major morbidity in very low birthweight infants (LIFT): This multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial carried out in 14 Australian and two neonatal intensive care units in New Zealand assessed whether supplementing the enteral diet with lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein, reduces all-cause mortality or major morbidity in very low birthweight or preterm infants. The trial of 1,542 infants revealed that while lactoferrin supplementation did not reduce all-cause mortality or morbidity, it did show reduction in late-onset sepsis, like the results of a meta-analysis of 5,000 infants they conducted.

Health and nutrition claims for infant formula are poorly substantiated and potentially harmful: There are established risks of using infant formula in place of breast milk for infant and mother. However, health and nutrition claims are commonly made for infant formula products and are often supported by low levels of evidence. These claims are regulated in a similar manner to other food products however, they pose a greater risk of harm because of the infant's vulnerability to development. The authors state that health and nutrition claims should not be permitted on infant formula and that any scientifically proved compositional improvements in infant formula should be made mandatory for all relevant products.

Tummy Time and Infant Health Outcomes: This systematic review aimed to review existing evidence regarding the association of tummy time with a range of infant health outcomes, as tummy time is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The systematic review included 16 articles representing 4,237 participants from eight countries. Findings showed that tummy time was positively associated with gross motor and total development, a reduction in the BMI-z score, prevention of brachycephaly, and the ability to move while prone, supine, crawling, and rolling. However, no association was found for fine motor development and communication. The review's main limitation that it lacked the robustness of a randomised control trial, and most studies were observational in nature.

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