Reports

Resuming health services during the Covid-19 pandemic: What can the NHS learn from other countries?: As the UK resumes elective care, this briefing uses data and resources from the WHO, the European Commission, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, and the OECD to understand how other countries are handling similar issues and what the implications might be for the NHS. The report finds that while the NHS has implemented similar strategies to many other countries, it is likely to have a slower path to recovery: the UK went into the pandemic with higher occupancy rates and fewer doctors, nurses and capital assets than most other health systems, while also being more severely impacted by the virus than most.

Excess weight and COVID-19: insights from new evidence: This report by Public Health England intended for policymakers, reports on findings from the UK and internationally on excess weight and its association with COVID-19. It looks at the association with COVID-19 for the following outcomes: laboratory confirmation; hospitalisation; admission to intensive or critical care and treatment and risk of mortality. It also offers important insights into the prevalence, causes and risks of being overweight and includes information regarding food and drink purchases and physical activity during the lockdown.

Best beginnings in the early years: While there is strong evidence supporting the importance of early years, little has been done. This report by the Children’s Commissioner for England explores why enough has not been done. The report suggest that while gains have been made over the last few decades, the system of support for children and their families during their first years of life which remains disjointed, fragmented and, in some areas, neglected. The report also suggest that the fundamental problem is that the education system in England was and is still too heavily focused on older children.

The role of primary schools in early intervention to prevent youth violence: Over the past 3 years, the Early Intervention Foundation (EIF) has worked with the London boroughs of Lambeth and Wandsworth to consider ways to apply the evidence on tackling youth violence and gang involvement, explore the way local systems support or undermine efforts to prevent violence, and build capacity within local services. The following report summarises observations and recommendations on the role of primary school, the wider system including the challenges of complexity and connections between services and agencies and the potential of youth and community sector support.

Research

Efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy with AR101 in European children with a peanut allergy (ARTEMIS): The researchers investigate the efficacy of an oral biologic drug (AR101) in response to food-related anaphylaxis as a result of peanut allergy in children and adolescents. This trial was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial done at 18 hospitals in Ireland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. The findings of the research suggest that the AR101 oral immunotherapy treatment led to rapid desensitisation to peanut protein and an associated improvement in self-reported and caregiver-reported food allergy-related quality of life which provide important insights for management of peanut allergies.

How a Pandemic Could Advance the Science of Early Adversity: While the physical health consequences of COVID-19 appear to affect proportionally fewer children compared with adults, its psychosocial consequences may be magnified within families who consistently are exposed to severe stressors or adverse childhood experiences. Leveraging the scientific evidence of early childhood research can aid in developing and implementing evidence-based practices that can reduce risk and promote resilience within vulnerable families. The paper offers recommendations for child development researchers to consider in the context of their current and future work.

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