Flu in the children and young people’s secure estate: The children and young people’s secure estate (young offender institutions, secure training centres, secure children’s homes) runs the risk of significant and potentially serious flu outbreaks, with large numbers of cases and a higher rate of complications. Furthermore, since COVID-19 is likely to be circulating, protecting young people and staff at high risk of flu, who are also those most vulnerable to hospitalisation because of COVID-19, is vitally important. This guidance document is aimed at staff working in the CYPSE on how to respond to cases of seasonal flu in children, including vaccinations, treatments and the management of any potential outbreaks whilst COVID-19 is circulating.

Cost effectiveness analysis - health economic studies: As part of Public Health England’s guide to evaluating digital health products, this recently added guidance looks at how to use a cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) to evaluate digital health products. CEAs focus on assessing the intervention’s impact on clinical measures and is particularly useful to use when the benefits of using the digital product are mostly health-related and clinical measures are the most appropriate to capture the health benefits. Similarly, new guidance also looks at how to use a cost utility analysis (CUA) to evaluate a digital health products. CUAs can help in understanding how far a product extends people’s lives (life year gains) and improves the quality of life compared to alternative options.

Data and tools

Sex ratios at birth in the United Kingdom: This dataset reports on the male to female birth ratios in the United Kingdom for the period 2014 to 2018, by mother’s country of birth and ethnicity of the child. The report published alongside shows that the analysis of birth sex ratios finds no evidence for sex selective abortions occurring in the United Kingdom over this time. There were 3.8 million births registered in the United Kingdom in this period with a ratio of boys to girls of 105.4, below the accepted upper limit of 107. No overall birth ratios were higher than 107 for analyses done by ethnicity of the child and country of origin of mother.


Sugar reduction: The sugar reduction programme challenges all sectors of the food industry to reduce sugar by 20% by 2020 in the categories of food that contribute most to the sugar intakes of children aged up to 18 years. This report provides a detailed assessment of the progress made over the first 3 years of the program. It is important to note that all comparisons made are based on pre-COVID-19 data. Some of the key headlines include hardly any change since 2015 in calories in products likely to be consumed on a single occasion; an increase in the simple average sugar content for open cup milkshakes of 4.1%, but a decrease in the number of calories likely to be consumed on a single occasion of 10.3% and decrease in total sugar purchased per household from drinks subject to the Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) across all socio-economic groups.

Reducing Health Inequalities for People Living with Frailty: The Department of Health and Social Care, NHS England and NHS Improvement, and Public Health England have published a report in response to the inconsistencies in the delivery of healthcare services to specific groups experiencing premature frailty. The report shares how services have successfully overcome barriers to healthcare for people experiencing health inequalities. Furthermore, set within the context of relevant research, this practical resource offers guidance to commissioners, service providers, and health care and support staff, to work in a collaborative, holistic and inclusive way to reduce inequalities around frailty.

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