Rights to access healthcare: Recent NHS charging regulations have meant increased migrant children, their families, and other undocumented patients cannot access healthcare. Moreover, healthcare professionals are increasingly being asked to play a role in the implementation of charging regulations leading to delays and denials of care alongside an loss of doctor-patient trust. This guidance is written to highlight the obstacles present in preventing migrant and/or undocumented children accessing healthcare. This document by the RCPCH provides tools and knowledge for clinicians to recognise the most vulnerable, provide advice on how to best advocate and support. This document should be used alongside guidance from their local trust policy.

Data and tools

Child Obesity: NHS Digital has released the latest annual figures on childhood obesity in England from the National Child Measurement Programme 2019-20. It provides data on heights and weights (including those underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese, or severely obese) for children in Reception and Year 6. Figures can be found by gender, deprivation, and ethnicity. Some of the key findings showed that obesity prevalence among both age groups increased, with boys having a higher obesity prevalence than girls for both age groups. Children in deprived areas were twice more likely to be obese than children from the least deprived areas.


Characteristics and outcomes of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK: This study aimed to describe the incidence, characteristics, transmission and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates who received inpatient hospital care in the UK, using a prospective population-based cohort study. Of the 66 infants identified with SAR-CoV-2, findings showed an 5.6 incidence per 10,000 live births. 26% of those were born to mothers with known perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3% possibly vertically, and 12% had acquired nosomially. The study adds to the evidence that neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in babies admitted to hospital. Moreover, it supports international guidance to avoid the separation of mother and baby as infection following birth to a mother with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 was unlikely, and possible vertical transmission was rare.

Cost-effectiveness of Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening for Adolescents and Young Adults in the Pediatric Emergency Department: This study aimed to identify the most cost-effective way to screen for STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) in adolescents and young adults in the US through visits to the paediatric emergency departments (EDs), given its high frequency of use. The economic evaluation (using a hypothetical population of 10,000 aged 15-21) showed that targeted and universally offered screening strategies were more successful in detection and treatment of sexually transmitted infections than no screening. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for targeted screening vs no screening was $6444 and for universally offered screening vs targeted screening was $12,139. This suggests that while universal and targeted screening at ED’s can be expensive, this can be valuable tools in identification and the treatment of STIs.

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